Advice on healthy pregnancy, delivery, motherhood and information on non-communicable diseases in the maternal care programme in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.
Pregnancy and delivery periods offer an opportunity for counselling women to improve behavioural risk and prevent complications, including non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, little evidence is available on counselling offered during antenatal and postnatal care (PNC) in Myanmar. This study aimed to assess the contents of advice and information received by women during antenatal and postnatal counselling and to identify factors associated with receiving those advice and information.
Perceptions of adolescent health literacy in the Palestinian social context: a qualitative study.
Sarhan BAM, Kitamura A, Fujiya R, Jimba M, Giacaman R.
Japanese Journal of Health Education and Promotion. 2019;27(1):29-42.
Palestinians are exposed to chronic violence, which has a negative impact on health status. Health literacy is increasingly employed to increase people’s control over their health. This qualitative research explored adolescents’, parents’ and teachers’ views regarding important health-related issues to Palestinian adolescents, as a preliminary step to develop a health literacy tool sensitive to the Palestinian social context.
Prevalence of G6PD Viangchan variant in malaria endemic areas in Lao PDR: an implication for malaria elimination by 2030.
Ong KIC, Iwagami M, Araki H, Khattignavong P, Soundala P, Keomalaphet S, Prasayasith P, Lorpachan L, Xangsayalath P, Pongvongsa T, Hongvanthong B, Brey PT, Kano S, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2019 Mar 12;18(1):75.
Primaquine is effective against the latent liver stage of Plasmodium vivax. Eliminating the latent liver stage of P. vivax is one of the necessary conditions to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) by 2030. However, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk of haemolysis when ingesting primaquine. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of the G6PD Viangchan variant, which is said to be common in Lao PDR and which can result in severe haemolysis in patients exposed to primaquine.
[Correspondence] Health-care disparities for foreign residents in Japan.
Yasukawa K, Sawada T, Hashimoto H, Jimba M.
Lancet. 2019 Mar 2;393(10174):873-874.
Under the current universal health coverage, Japan's health-care system has been praised for being easily accessible for Japanese patients. However, many foreign residents in Japan continue to face barriers in access to health care, and health disparity remains a major challenge that needs to be addressed. Particular foreign populations, including some asylum seekers and migrant workers with expired visas, are not covered by the universal health coverage in Japan. We are also seeing a concerning trend wherein some hospitals deny care to foreign patients who do not have insurance. Because of specialised coordinators for foreign patients, which the Japanese Government is intending to increase, many hospitals are now encouraged to strictly check identity documents and insurance cards before patients are treated, thereby raising barriers to health-care access for migrant workers with stalled national insurance premiums and asylum applicants.
The press release in Japanese from Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo is available from this link.
Mental health disorders and substance use among people living with HIV in Nepal: their influence on non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy.
Pokhrel KN, Pokhrel KG, Sharma VD, Poudel KC, Neupane SR, Mlunde LB, Jimba M.
AIDS Care. 2019 Mar 5:1-9.
People living with HIV often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use. Evidence, however, is limited about the influence of mental health disorders and substance use on non-adherence to ART. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 HIV-positive people on ART in Nepal. We measured their depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress levels, substance use, and non-adherence to ART.
Determinants of depressive symptoms in Filipino senior citizens of the community-based ENGAGE study.
Carandang RR, Shibanuma A, Kiriya J, Asis E, Chavez DC, Meana M, Murayama H, Jimba M.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019 Feb 19;82:186-191.
This study investigated the factors associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling Filipino senior citizens.METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1021 Filipino senior citizens aged 60-91 years. We used multiple linear regression analysis to identify the factors independently associated with levels of depressive symptoms. We predicted the model using hierarchical regression analysis.
In Memoriam: Professor Takusei Umenai (1941-2018): Hi, Let's Create a Novel Paradigm for Health Science!
Takahashi K, Jimba M.
Asia Pac J Public Health. 2019 Feb 22:1010539519832477.
Women's knowledge on common non-communicable diseases and nutritional need during pregnancy in three townships of Ayeyarwaddy region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.
Thandar MM, Kiriya J, Shibanuma A, Ong KIC, Tin KN, Win HH, Jimba M.
Trop Med Health. 2019 Jan 29;47:12.
Health systems in many countries do not adequately address non-communicable diseases (NCDs) during pregnancy, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In Myanmar, most studies on NCDs have investigated risk factors and prevalence of NCDs in the general population. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of common NCDs and nutritional need during pregnancy and to identify the factors associated with such knowledge, in three townships of Ayeyarwaddy region in Myanmar.
Virologic failure in HIV-positive adolescents with perfect adherence in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.
Natukunda J, Kirabira P, Ong KIC, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Tropical Medicine and Health. 2019;47:8.
Adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) die owing to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes more than adults. Although viral suppression protects people living with HIV from AIDS-related illnesses, little is known about viral outcomes of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa where the biggest burden of deaths is experienced. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with viral load suppression among HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda.
Perceived social support, coping, and stigma on the quality of life of people living with HIV in Nepal: a moderated mediation analysis.
Shrestha S, Shibanuma A, Poudel KC, Nanishi K, Koyama Abe M, Shakya SK, Jimba M.
AIDS Care. 2019; 31(4):413-420.
Perceived social support, coping strategy, and internalized stigma have been linked with the quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, little is known about how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect QOL. This study incorporated a moderated mediation model to investigate whether coping strategy mediates the relationship between perceived social support and QOL, and to examine whether this mediating effect varies with the level of internalized stigma among PLHIV.
Factors associated with concurrent sexual partnerships among men who have sex with men in Yangon, Myanmar.
Saw TN, Yasuoko J, Saw YM, Than TM, Win EM, Aung ZZ, Cho SM, Shibanuma A, Poudel KC, Win HH, Iriyama S, Jimba M.
Nagoya J Med Sci. 2018 Nov;80(4):505-518.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to be one of the groups most at risk of contracting HIV. However, to date, information regarding MSM’s sexual behaviors and the risk factors for their concurrent sexual partnerships (CSP) have not been known in Myanmar. This study aimed to identify factors associated with CSP among MSM.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2011 in Yangon, Myanmar.
Health and dignity of Palestine refugees at stake: a need for international response to sustain crucial life services at UNRWA.
Kitamura A, Jimba M, MaCahey J, Paolucci G, Shah S, Hababeh M, Shahin Y, Seita A.
Lancet.2018 Dec 22 -Jan 4 2019; 392:2736–44.
The UN Sustainable Development Goals affirm equality and dignity as essential to the enjoyment of basic human rights, including the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, which promotes global solidarity among all people, including refugees. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has provided support to Palestine refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank since the 1950s. Today, however, conflict and violence, occupation, high levels of poverty, and other social determinants of health jeopardize the wellbeing of Palestine refugees. Health concerns include non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions, and access to hospital care. Additionally, UNRWA is continuing to face a severe funding crisis. Using a historical and health policy perspective, this Health Policy examines UNRWA strategies that facilitate continuous provision of health-care services for Palestine refugees. Given the increasingly volatile environment faced by this population, a multifaceted international response is needed to enable UNRWA to deliver sustainable services to Palestine refugees and avert further loss of life, dignity, and hope, pending a just and lasting solution to their plight in accordance with applicable international law and UN General Assembly resolutions.
[Correspondence]Shrink the universal health coverage cube.
Jimba M, Fujimura SM.
Lancet. 2018 Dec 13; 392:2551.
In the era of promoting universal health coverage (UHC), WHO's cube diagram is well known. The diagram explains three types of coverage: service, population, and cost. As the diagram does not address disparities in coverage across population groups, another cube diagram, Step Pyramid, has also been introduced.Although this new model has the potential to urge policy makers to focus on health equity, it still focuses on the expansion of services, populations, and costs, and explicitly centers upon expanding the coverage status of different population groups, including upper-income, middle-income, and lower-income groups.
The Knowledge and Awareness for Radiocesium Food Monitoring after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture.
Kunii N, Fujimura MS, Komasa Y, Kitamura A, Sato H, Takatsuji T, Jimba M, Kimura S.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Oct 18;15(10).
On 11 March 2011, Japan experienced a massive earthquake and tsunami that triggered the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, resulting in the release of large amounts of cesium-134 and -137 into the atmosphere. In addition to the food radioactivity control in the markets throughout the country, radiocesium concentrations in locally grown foods were voluntarily inspected and the results were shown to the residents by the local government to raise their awareness of the internal radiation contamination risk from low knowledge in Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture. In this longitudinal study, local food products for in-home consumption were evaluated by seven different food radioactivity measuring devices in Nihonmatsu City from 2011⁻2017.
The coverage of continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health: a cross-sectional study of woman-child pairs in Ghana.
Shibanuma A, Yeji F, Okawa S, Mahama E, Kikuchi K, Narh K, Enuameh Y, Nanishi K, Oduro A, Owusu-Agyei S, Gyapong M, Asare GQ, Yasuoka J, Ansah EK, Hodgson A, Jimba M,the Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
BMJ Global Health 2018;3:e000786.
The continuum of care has recently received attention in maternal, newborn and child health. It can be an effective policy framework to ensure that every woman and child receives timely and appropriate services throughout the continuum. However, a commonly used measurement does not evaluate if a pair of woman and child complies with the continuum of care. This study assessed the continuum of care based on two measurements: continuous visits to health facilities (measurement 1) and receiving key components of services (measurement 2). It also explored individual-level and area-level factors associated with the continuum of care achievement and then investigated how the continuum of care differed across areas.
Nepalese migrants in Japan: What is holding them back in getting access to healthcare?
Shakya P, Tanaka M, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2018 Sep 7;13(9):e0203645.
Migrants are one of the most deprived and vulnerable groups who receive the least health services in the society. Only a few studies have been conducted on access to healthcare among migrants in Asia, despite hosting 75 million migrants. In Japan, Nepalese migrants constitute the largest South Asian community. Their number increased by three folds from 2011 to 2016. However, little is known about their access to health care in Japan. Based on Andersen's model, we examined the factors associated with access to healthcare among Nepalese migrants in Japan.
Different Pfcrt genotypes and related microsatellite DNA polymorphisms on Plasmodium falciparum differed among populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion.
Iwagami M, Tangpukdee N, Wilairatana P, Krudsood S, Dao LD, Nakazawa S, Sinuon M, Socheat D, Yasuoka J, Jimba M, Watanabe H, Kobayashi J, Toma H, Vanisaveth V, Hongvanthong B, Brey PT, Kano S.
Parasitol Int. 2018 Aug 27. pii: S1383-5769(17)30395-1.
Malaria morbidity and mortality have decreased gradually in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Presently, WHO sets a goal to eliminate malaria by 2030 in the GMS. However, drug-resistant malaria has been reported from several endemic areas. To achieve the goal of elimination, the status of the emergence and spread of drug resistance should be monitored. In this study, the genotype of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) and 6 microsatellite DNA loci flanking the gene were examined.
[Comment]HIV care continuum for key populations in Indonesia
Poudel KC, Jimba M.
Lancet HIV. 2018 Aug 21. pii: S2352-3018(18)30169-3.
The HIV epidemic remains largely concentrated among key populations in countries across the Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia. Key populations at high risk are people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers, and transgender people (known as waria in Indonesia). HIV testing and treatment in these groups are low in the region.Engagement of HIV-positive individuals at each stage of the HIV care continuum is crucial for positive outcomes. The continuum, which includes diagnosis, linkage to and retention in HIV care, prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and viral suppression, reduces mortality and morbidity and prevents further HIV transmission. Therefore, better understanding of the care continuum among key populations is needed to address knowledge gaps and improve the outcomes of HIV services.
Mothers' Opisthorchis viverrini infection status and raw fish dish consumption in Lao People's Democratic Republic: determinants of child infection status.
Araki H, Ong KIC, Lorphachan L, Soundala P, Iwagami M, Shibanuma A, Hongvanthong B, Brey PT, Kano S, Jimba M.
Trop Med Health. 2018 Aug 7;46:29.
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection is one of the foodborne trematodiases, which is highly endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The infection occurs especially when people eat raw fish containing Ov metacercariae. As eating raw fish is a traditional culture in Lao PDR, changing this behavior is difficult. A new approach is necessary to control Ov infection because people easily get re-infected even after taking praziquantel unless they change their behaviors. This study aimed to explore factors associated with Ov infection among children and to identify the existing behaviors and perception that might contribute to the control of Ov infection in Lao PDR. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Yommalath district, Khammouane province, in Lao PDR in August and September 2015. In this cross-sectional study, we used a semi-structured questionnaire and interviewed 348 mothers who had a child aged 5-15years. We also collected the fecal samples from each mother-child pair and used the Kato-Katz method (three slides/sample) to detect Ov eggs.
Agreement on Reporting Intimate Partner Violence Among Nepalese Couples: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Yoshikawa K, Shakya TM, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
J Interpers Violence. 2018 Jul 1:886260518788371.
When intimate partner violence (IPV) data are collected from only one partner, they are often subject to considerable reporting bias. However, it is not easy to collect such data from couples, and inaccuracies might result in discrepancies, which needs a resolution. We assessed the concordance on reports of lifetime and previous year physical, sexual, and emotional IPV against wives, as reported by both Nepalese wives and husbands. The association of possible risk factors with discordant reporting of IPV was also analyzed.
Bottom-up approach to strengthen community-based malaria control strategy from community health workers' perceptions of their past, present, and future: a qualitative study in Palawan, Philippines.
Matsumoto-Takahashi ELA, Tongol-Rivera P, Villacorte EA, Angluben RU, Jimba M, Kano S.
Trop Med Health. 2018 Jul 4;46:24.
Microscopists have active roles in bringing malaria diagnosis and treatment closer to households in Palawan, the highest malaria-endemic province in the Philippines. To accelerate the elimination of malaria in Palawan, we performed a study based on the bottom-up approach to provide profound data to strengthen this community-based malaria control from the microscopists’ point of view.
Investigating the impact of a community home-based care on mental health and anti-retroviral therapy adherence in people living with HIV in Nepal: a community intervention study.
Pokhrel KN, Sharma VD, Pokhrel KG, Neupane SR, Mlunde LB, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 7;18(1):263.
HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use when the disease progresses. In resource limited settings, mental health services are not integrated into HIV services. In Nepal, HIV-positive people do receive psychosocial support and other basic health care services from a community home-based care intervention; however, the effects of the intervention on health outcomes is not yet known. Therefore, we examined the impact of the intervention on mental health and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence.
Providing Japanese health care information for international visitors: digital animation intervention.
Nishikawa M, Yamanaka M, Kiriya J, Jimba M.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 May 21;18(1):373.
Over 24 million international visitors came to Japan in 2016 and the number is expected to increase. Visitors could be at a risk of illness or injury that may result in hospitalization in Japan. We assessed the effects of a four-minute digital animation titled Mari Info Japan on the level of anxiety experienced by international visitors to Japan.
Use of modern contraceptive methods and its association with QOL among Nepalese female migrants living in Japan.
Modern contraceptive use among migrants may be limited due to factors such as language barriers, socio-economic condition, and inadequate knowledge. Limited evidence is available on the factors associated with the use of modern contraceptive methods by migrants in Japan. Moreover, evidence remains scarce on the quality of life (QOL) of migrants in relation to contraceptive use. As the Nepalese migrant population in Japan is increasing, this study was conducted to address their sexual and reproductive health issues. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the factors associated with the use of modern contraceptive methods and to explore the association between the use of modern contraceptive methods and QOL among married Nepalese female migrants in Japan.
Interventions integrating non-communicable disease prevention and reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: A systematic review.
Kikuchi K, Ayer R, Okawa S, Nishikitani M, Yokota F, Jimba M, Nakashima N.
Biosci Trends. 2018;12(2):116-125.
Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) care services could be critical entry points for preventing non-communicable diseases in women and children. In high-income countries, non-communicable diseases screening has been integrated into both the medical and public health systems. To integrate these services in low- and middle-income countries, it is necessary to closely examine its effectiveness and feasibility. In this systematic review, we evaluated the effectiveness of integrating gestational and non-gestational non-communicable diseases interventions and RMNCH care among women and children in low- and middle-income countries.
Sexual and reproductive health behavior and unmet needs among a sample of adolescents living with HIV in Zambia: a cross-sectional study.
Okawa S, Mwanza-Kabaghe S, Mwiya M, Kikuchi K, Jimba M, Kankasa C, Ishikawa N.
Reprod Health. 2018 Mar 27;15(1):55.
Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and adesire to have children.
Education and indoor smoking among parents who smoke: the mediating role of perceived social norms of smoking.
Saito J, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Kondo N, Takagi D, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Jan 18:211.
Parents with less formal education are more likely to smoke indoors, causing socioeconomic disparity in children’s exposure to second-hand smoke. However, little is known about the roles of social factors in the socioeconomic gradients of indoor smoking. We tested the potential mediating role of perceived smoking norms on the associations between education and indoor smoking among parents who smoke.
Gender-specific differences in high-risk sexual behaviors among methamphetamine users in Myanmar-China border city, Muse, Myanmar: who is at risk?
Saw YM, Saw TN, Chan N, Cho SM, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Feb 1;18(1):209.
Methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to its negative effects on health. However, to date, no epidemiological research has examined high-risk sexual behaviors (inconsistent condom use, having multiple sexual partners and having a history of sexually transmitted infections) among MA users. This topic is particularly important in Myanmar, which is recognized as one of the key MA production countries in the Southeast Asia region. Therefore, this study examined factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors among MA users in Muse city, Myanmar.
Psychological well-being and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents living with HIV in Zambia.
Okawa S, Mwanza Kabaghe S, Mwiya M, Kikuchi K, Jimba M, Kankasa C, Ishikawa N.
AIDS Care. 2018May;30(5):634-642.
Physical and psychosocial changes during adolescence could influence the psychological well-being and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of adolescents living with HIV. However, few studies have assessed these two important issues in Zambia. This study aimed at addressing this gap by examining adolescents’ depressive symptoms and ART adherence.
Adolescents' Experiences and Their Suggestions for HIV Serostatus Disclosure in Zambia: A Mixed-Methods Study.
Okawa S, Mwanza-Kabaghe S, Mwiya M, Kikuchi K, Jimba M, Kankasa C, Ishikawa N.
Front Public Health. 2017 Dec 15;5:326.
HIV serostatus disclosure is an immense challenge for adolescents living with HIV, their caregivers, and health workers. In Zambia, however, little guidance is available from the adolescents' point of view on the HIV disclosure process.This study aimed to examine the setting of HIV serostatus disclosure for adolescents, its impacts on them, and their suggestions on the best practice of HIV disclosure.
Roles of children and their parents in the reduction of radiation risk after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.
Fujimura MS, Komasa Y, Kimura S, Shibanuma A, Kitamura A, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2017 Dec 13;12(12):e0188906.
On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced its largest recorded earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. The resulting tsunami caused massive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors, and the surrounding environment was contaminated with radioactive materials. During this period, some residents were exposed to high levels of radiation (up to 5 millisieverts [mSv]), but since then, many residents have been exposed to low levels of radiation (<1 mSv). This study was conducted to assess the effects of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation exposure among Fukushima residents.
Systematic review of the clinical manifestations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greater Mekong Subregion: implications for malaria elimination and beyond.
Ong KIC, Kosugi H, Thoeun S, Araki H, Thandar MM, Iwagami M, Hongvanthong B, Brey PT, Kano S, Jimba M.
BMJ Glob Health. 2017 Aug 19;2(3):e000415.
To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS.
Towards eliminating malaria in high endemic countries: the roles of community health workers and related cadres and their challenges in integrated community case management for malaria: a systematic review.
Sunguya BF, Mlunde LB, Ayer R, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2017 Jan 3;16(1):10.
Human resource for health crisis has impaired global efforts against malaria in highly endemic countries. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling-up of community health workers (CHWs) and related cadres owing to their documented success in malaria and other disease prevention and management. Evidence is inconsistent on the roles and challenges they encounter in malaria interventions. This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on roles and challenges of CHWs and related cadres in integrated community case management for malaria (iCCM).
Determinants of attending antenatal care at least four times in rural Ghana: analysis of a cross-sectional survey.
Sakeah E, Okawa S, Rexford Oduro A, Shibanuma A, Ansah E, Kikuchi K, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Williams J, Debpuur C, Yeji F, Kukula VA, Enuameh Y, Asare GQ, Agyekum EO, Addai S, Sarpong D, Adjei K, Tawiah C, Yasuoka J, Nanishi K, Jimba M, Hodgson A, The Ghana Embrace Team.
Glob Health Action. 2017;10(1):1291879.
Improving maternal health is a global challenge. In Ghana, maternal morbidity and mortality rates remain high, particularly in rural areas. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance is known to improve maternal health. However, few studies have updated current knowledge regarding determinants of ANC attendance.
Predicting health-related quality of life in people living with HIV in Nepal: mental health disorders and substance use determinants.
Pokhrel KN, Sharma VD, Shibanuma A, Pokhrel KG, Mlunde LB, Jimba M.
AIDS Care. 2017 May 26:1-7.
HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use. Such conditions tend to impair their health-related quality of life (QOL). Evidence, however, is limited about the influence of mental health disorders and substance use on QOL by gender. Also, little is known about the influences of anxiety and high levels of stress on QOL. We recruited 682 HIV-positive people in Nepal and measured their depression, anxiety, stress levels, substance use, and QOL.
Effectiveness of community-based peer support for mothers to improve their breastfeeding practices: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Shakya P, Kunieda MK, Koyama M, Rai SS, Miyaguchi M, Dhakal S, Sandy S, Sunguya BF, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2017 May 16;12(5):e0177434.
Breastfeeding is associated with reduced mortality in children aged less than 5 years. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (registered as PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015019105) to examine the effectiveness of community-based peer support for mothers on their breastfeeding practices as compared to mothers who have not received such a support.
Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.
Saw YM, Saw TN, Yasuoka J, Chan N, Kham NPE, Khine W, Cho SM, Jimba M.
Harm Reduct J. 2017 14:2.
Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting.
Development of the revised Japanese Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale, short version.
Hongo H, Green J, Nanishi K, Jimba M.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;26(3):392-395.
The Japanese Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale (JMBFES) was developed in 2013 based on the original Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale (MBFES). Mothers' abilities to incorporate breastfeeding into their daily life may influence their decision to continue or discontinue to breastfeed, but that version of the JMBFES had no questions to measure this important aspect of breastfeeding. Therefore, we sought to improve the JMBFES by incorporating questions measuring "lifestyle compatibility-incompatibility," and we conducted psychometric testing of the improved version.
Improving feeding and growth of HIV-positive children through nutrition training of frontline health workers in Tanga, Tanzania.
Sunguya BF, Mlunde LB, Urassa DP, Poudel KC, Ubuguyu OS, Mkopi NP, Leyna GH, Kessy AT, Nanishi K, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
BMC Pediatr. 2017 Apr 4;17(1):94.
Nutrition training can boost competence of health workers to improve children's feeding practices. In this way, child undernutrition can be ameliorated in general populations. However, evidence is lacking on efficacy of such interventions among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive children. We aimed to examine the efficacy of a nutrition training intervention to improve midlevel providers' (MLPs) nutrition knowledge and feeding practices and the nutrition statuses of HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania.
ケース5：熱帯病対策 貧困の中の未解決問題に挑む （連載「ポジデビを探せ！」7）
荒木瞳. 公衆衛生. 81(5):443-449.
国際連合は，2016年，持続可能な開発目標達成のための取り組みを開始した．キーワードは，「誰一人として取り残さない(Leaving no one behind)」．合計17目標のうち，3番目にあるのが保健目標であり，「あらゆる年齢のすべての人の健康的な生活を確保し，福祉を推進する」ことと定めた．
モニク・スターニン. （柴沼晃：訳）公衆衛生. 81(4):350-354.
本稿では，モニク・スターニン氏から，本連載「ポジデビを探せ！」読者の皆さんへのメッセージをまず紹介する．同氏は，ポジデビ・アプローチを用いて過去25年以上にわたり公衆衛生をはじめとするさまざまな社会課題の解決に取り組んでこられた．「The Power of Positive Deviance」1)の共著者でもある．次に，同氏が2015年11月14日に東京大学で行った講演「常識の端にある異端を見つめて—ポジデビ・アプローチによる行動変容と社会変革」の一部を紹介する．
Caring for perinatally HIV-infected children: call for mental care for the children and the caregivers.
Kikuchi K, Poudel KC, Rwibasira JM, Majyambere A, Mutabazi V, Nyonsenga SP, Muhayimpundu R, Jimba M.
AIDS Care. 2017 Mar 30:1-7.
Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the survival rate of perinatally HIV-infected children. For them to thrive, it is necessary to understand better their mental health issues. Caregivers play an important role in children's daily care and caregiver mental health may relate to children's mental health. However, this association has rarely been studied. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between depression of caregivers and that of perinatally HIV-infected children in Kigali, Rwanda. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 475 perinatally HIV-infected children aged 7-14 years and their caregivers.
The gender gap in relation to happiness and preferences in married couples after childbirth: evidence from a field experiment in rural Ghana.
Kamiya Y, Akpalu B, Mahama E, Ayipah EK, Owusu-Agyei S, Hodgson A, Shibanuma A, Kikuchi K, Jimba M; Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
J Health Popul Nutr. 2017 Mar 15;36(1):8.
How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period.
An investigation of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS by doctors and nurses in Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Vorasane S, Jimba M, Kikuchi K, Yasuoka J, Nanishi K, Durham J, Sychareun V.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2017 Feb 10;17(1):125.
Despite global efforts, HIV-related stigma continues to negatively impact the health and well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS. Even in healthcare settings, people with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination. Anecdotal evidence suggests that healthcare professionals in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a lower-middle income country situated in Southeast Asia, stigmatize HIV/AID patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV stigmatizing attitudes within Laotian healthcare service providers and examine some of the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma among doctors and nurses.
道徳教育. 2017 Feb;57(2)10.
Towards eliminating malaria in high endemic countries: the roles of community health workers and related cadres and their challenges in integrated community case management for malaria: a systematic review.
Sunguya BF, Mlunde LB, Ayer R, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2017 Jan 3;16(1):10.
Human resource for health crisis has impaired global efforts against malaria in highly endemic countries. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling-up of community health workers (CHWs) and related cadres owing to their documented success in malaria and other disease prevention and management. Evidence is inconsistent on the roles and challenges they encounter in malaria interventions. This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on roles and challenges of CHWs and related cadres in integrated community case management for malaria (iCCM).
(Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal)
山口乃生子, Poudel KC, 神馬征峰.
日本ハンセン病学会雑誌（Jpn J Lepr）. 2016; 85:65-68.
Impact of the Japanese 5S management method on patients' and caretakers' satisfaction: a quasi-experimental study in Senegal.
Kanamori S, Castro MC, Sow S, Matsuno R, Cissokho A, Jimba M.
Glob Health Action. 2016 Nov 28;9:32852.
The 5S method is a lean management tool for workplace organization, with 5S being an abbreviation for five Japanese words that translate to English as Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In Senegal, the 5S intervention program was implemented in 10 health centers in two regions between 2011 and 2014.
神馬征峰. 風間書房; 2016.
A School Health Project Can Uplift the Health Status of School Children in Nepal.
Shrestha RM, Miyaguchi M, Shibanuma A, Khanal A, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2016 Nov 3;11(11):e0166001.
School health is effective in helping students achieve health literacy, enhance their health-related behaviors, and thereby improve their health status. However, in resource-limited countries, evidence is limited to show the impact of school health. We determined the association of the school health and nutrition (SHN) project activities on students' a) health knowledge, b) hygiene practices, and c) health outcomes, one year after the project completion.
Effectiveness of Continuum of Care-Linking Pre-Pregnancy Care and Pregnancy Care to Improve Neonatal and Perinatal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Kikuchi K, Okawa S, Zamawe CO, Shibanuma A, Nanishi K, Iwamoto A, Saw YM, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2016 Oct 27;11(10):e0164965.
In an era of Sustainable Development Goals, maternal, newborn, and child health still require improvement. Continuum of care is considered key to improving the health status of these populations. The continuum of care is a series of care strategies starting from pre-pregnancy to motherhood-childhood. The effectiveness of such linkage between the pregnancy, birth, and postnatal periods has been demonstrated. However, almost no study has assessed the impact of linkage that starts from pre-pregnancy to pregnancy care on maternal and child health. The present study attempts to fill this gap by assessing the effectiveness of the care linkage between pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries.
The effectiveness of a nationwide universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi.
Zamawe CO, Nakamura K, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2016 Oct 18;15(1):505.
Although the universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated mosquito bed nets (ITNs) has been associated with improved malaria outcomes, recent reports indicate that the campaign is losing its sparkle in some countries. In Malawi, the universal coverage campaign was implemented in 2012, but its impacts are yet to be ascertained. Thus, this study examined the effects of the campaign on malaria morbidity among children in Malawi.
（What is positive deviance?）
神馬征峰. 公衆衛生. 80(11):853-58.
Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.
Shiratori S, Agyekum EO, Shibanuma A, Oduro A, Okawa S, Enuameh Y, Yasuoka J, Kikuchi K, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Ansah E, Hodgson A, Jimba M; EMBRACE Implementation Research Team.
Hum Resour Health. 2016 Aug 22;14(1):53.
Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana.
The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia.
Shimizu M, Yi S, Tuot S, Suong S, Sron S, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Glob Health Action. 2016 Aug 9;9:31999.
Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia.
Applicability of the 5S management method for quality improvement in health-care facilities: a review
Kanamori S, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Trop Med Health. 2016 Jul 19;44:21.
The 5S management method (where 5S stands for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) was originally implemented by manufacturing enterprises in Japan. It was then introduced to the manufacturing sector in the West and eventually applied to the health sector for organizing and standardizing the workplace. 5S has recently received attention as a potential solution for improving government health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore its applicability to health-care facilities globally, with a focus on three aspects: (a) the context of its application, (b) its impacts, and (c) its adoption as part of government initiatives.
Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors.
Ayer R, Kikuchi K, Ghimire M, Shibanuma A, Pant MR, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2016 Jul 20;11(7):e0159382. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159382. eCollection 2016.
HIV-positive people's clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal.
[Letter] The potential of positive deviance approach for the sustainable control of neglected tropical diseases.
Ong KI, Araki H, Kano S, Jimba M.
Trop Med Health. 2016 Jul 13;44:20.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have gained much attention in recent years due to the support from various agencies. However, the main approach to combat NTDs has been to cure rather than to prevent. As many NTD infections are closely linked with human behaviors such as hygienic practices and tradition, behavior change is also very crucial to prevent relapse or reinfection. Therefore, we would like to suggest a potential new approach-the positive deviance approach-to tackle NTDs by focusing on the preventive phase. What makes this approach unique is that the solution comes from the affected population themselves and not from the expert outsiders. Preventive chemotherapy that relies on outside aid has serious sustainability issues as reinfection is also high after the aid program has ended. Learning from the success story in Vietnam on preventing childhood malnutrition, the positive deviance approach could end the spread of NTDs once and for all by making full use of the available local solutions.
Training the next generation of global health experts: experiences and recommendations from Pacific Rim universities.
Withers M, Press D, Wipfli H, McCool J, Chan CC, Jimba M, Tremewan C, Samet J.
Global Health. 2016 Jun 23;12(1):34.
Finding solutions to global health problems will require a highly-trained, inter-disciplinary workforce. Global health education and research can potentially have long-range impact in addressing the global burden of disease and protecting and improving the health of the global population.
Health, Resilience, and Human Security: Moving Toward Health for All
Korc M, Hubbard S, Suzuki T, Jimba M.
New York: Japan Center for International Exchange and Pan American Health Organization; 2016.
The purpose of this document is to explain to experts in the health and development fields what a human security approach is and show how it can be applied in an attempt to put individuals and communities on a path toward achieving a virtuous cycle of good health, wellbeing, and resilience. In particular, the document focuses on how the human security approach addresses the linkages among different sources of health threats and ensures that interventions are integrated so as to build and sustain health resilience at the individual, community, and institutional levels as a path toward health for all through universal health coverage. It also focuses on how human security can help translate health gains into improvements in wellbeing on a larger scale. In other words, an emphasis on human security can help us to move beyond focusing on survival to focusing on livelihoods, wellbeing, and dignity.
Ability of HIV Advocacy to Modify Behavioral Norms and Treatment Impact: A Systematic Review.
Sunguya BF, Munisamy M, Pongpanich S, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
Am J Public Health. 2016 Jun 16:e1-e8.
HIV advocacy programs are partly responsible for the global community's success in reducing the burden of HIV. The rising wave of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has prompted the World Health Organization to espouse NCD advocacy efforts as a possible preventive strategy. HIV and NCDs share some similarities in their chronicity and risky behaviors, which are their associated etiology. Therefore, pooled evidence on the effectiveness of HIV advocacy programs and ideas shared could be replicated and applied during the conceptualization of NCD advocacy programs. Such evidence, however, has not been systematically reviewed to address the effectiveness of HIV advocacy programs, particularly programs that aimed at changing public behaviors deemed as risk factors.
Undernutrition Among Infants and Children in Nepal: Maternal Health Services and Their Roles to Prevent it.
Pokhrel K, Nanishi K, Poudel KC, Pokhrel KG, Tiwari K, Jimba M.
Matern Child Health J. 2016 May 28.
Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) for children aged 6–23 months includes adequate dietary diversity, appropriate meal frequency, and continued breastfeeding. Mothers receiving antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) may adopt better IYCF. This study examined the association of ANC or PNC attendance with IYCF and child nutrition status.
Food-choice motives of adolescents in Jakarta, Indonesia: the roles of gender and family income.
Maulida R, Nanishi K, Green J, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Public Health Nutr. 2016 May 16:1-9
The aims of the present study were to assess the reliability and validity of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and to determine the factors associated with food-choice motives in public junior-high-school students in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Association of opioid agonist therapy with the initiation of antiretroviral therapy - a systematic review.
Mlunde LB, Sunguya BF, Mbwambo JK, Ubuguyu OS, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 29.
People who inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection but often face barriers in accessing medical care including access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Evidence is available about the effectiveness of opioid agonist therapy on drug dependency and risk behaviors. However, it remains scattered regarding access to ART among HIV-positive people who inject drugs. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association of opioid agonist therapy with ART initiation among HIV-positive people who inject drugs.
Factors Influencing Health Facility Delivery in Predominantly Rural Communities across the Three Ecological Zones in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Enuameh YA, Okawa S, Asante KP, Kikuchi K, Mahama E, Ansah E, Tawiah C, Adjei K, Shibanuma A, Nanishi K, Yeji F, Agyekum EO, Yasuoka J, Gyapong M, Oduro AR, Quansah Asare G, Hodgson A, Jimba M, Owusu-Agyei S; Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152235.
Maternal and neonatal mortality indicators remain high in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries. Both maternal and neonatal health outcomes improve when skilled personnel provide delivery services within health facilities. Determinants of delivery location are crucial to promoting health facility deliveries, but little research has been done on this issue in Ghana. This study explored factors influencing delivery location in predominantly rural communities in Ghana.
A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Mlunde LB, Sunguya BF, Mbwambo JK, Ubuguyu OS, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2016 Feb 5;11(2):e0148598.
People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Correlates of health care seeking behavior among people who inject drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Mlunde LB, Sunguya BF, Mbwambo JKK, Ubuguyu OS, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
International Journal of Drug Policy. 2015 Dec 21. pii: S0955-3959(15)00365-5.
People who inject drugs (PWID) suffer from a high burden of infectious disease. At the same time, they often have poor access to health care. As in other East African countries, the population of PWID is growing in Tanzania, but little is known about their contact with health care services. In this paper we examine patterns of health care use among PWID in Dar es Salaam and identify what factors are associated with regular contact with clinicians during illness.
Continuum of Care in a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Program in Ghana: Low Completion Rate and Multiple Obstacle Factors.
Yeji F, Shibanuma A, Oduro A, Debpuur C, Kikuchi K, Owusu-Agei S, Gyapong M, Okawa S, Ansah E, Asare GQ, Nanishi K, Williams J, Addei S, Tawiah C, Yasuoka J, Enuameh Y, Sakeah E, Wontuo P, Jimba M, Hodgson A; Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
PLoS One. 2015 Dec 9;10(12):e0142849.
Slow progress has been made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in Ghana. Ensuring continuum of care (at least four antenatal visits; skilled birth attendance; postnatal care within 48 hours, at two weeks, and six weeks) for mother and newborn is crucial in helping Ghana achieve these goals and beyond. This study examined the levels and factors associated with continuum of care (CoC) completion among Ghanaian women aged 15-49.
Are Husbands Involving in Their Spouses' Utilization of Maternal Care Services?: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yangon, Myanmar.
Wai KM, Shibanuma A, Oo NN, Fillman TJ, Saw YM, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2015 Dec 7;10(12):e0144135.
Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods.
Coinfection of Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal.
Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Palmer PH, Mizoue T, Jimba M, Kobayashi J, Acharya B, Pandey BD, Oka S.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2015 Nov 2.
In Asian concentrated HIV epidemics, data on coinfection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-positive individuals are limited. The authors measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and syphilis, and their correlates among 319 HIV-positive individuals in Kathmandu, Nepal. The authors tested blood samples for syphilis and urine samples for CT and NG.
Longitudinal adherence to antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia.
Okawa S, Chirwa M, Ishikawa N, Kapyata H, Msiska CY, Syakantu G, Miyano S, Komada K, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Oct 12;15(1):258.
Adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is essential for eliminating new pediatric infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the Zambian government revised the national guidelines based on option A (i.e., maternal zidovudine and infant ARV prophylaxis) of the World Health Organization's 2010 guidelines, no studies have assessed adherence to ARVs during pregnancy up to the postpartum period. This study aimed to examine adherence to ARVs and identify the associated risk factors.
'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.
Saito J, Tabuchi T, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Nakamura M, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2015 Oct 2;10(10):e0139512. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139512.
Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.
Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Kikuchi K, Ansah EK, Okawa S, Enuameh Y, Yasuoka J, Nanishi K, Shibanuma A, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Oduro AR, Asare GQ, Hodgson A, Jimba M; Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
PLoS One. 2015 Sep 30;10(9):e0139288. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139288. eCollection 2015.
Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood) and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care). However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.
「二足のわらじをはく」ことを英語では「二つの帽子をかぶる（wearing two hats）」と表現する．なぜ帽子かというと，職業によってかぶるものが違い，帽子を見れば職業がわかったからだという．日本では足，英語圏では頭．いずれにしても，一見両立しないような仕事を一人でこなすのが，現代でも通じる二足のわらじの意味である．
[Correspondence] Prevention of violence against women and girls at the community level.
Jayatilleke AC, Jayatilleke AU, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):427-8.
In their Series paper on lessons from practice (April 25, p 1672), Lori Michau and colleagues emphasised the importance of social, cultural, and political interactions to prevent violence against women and girls. This approach is especially important for developing countries where many women are in abusive relationships. Although laws have the potential to prevent violence, such violent relationships can continue owing to absence of support after a separation, social stigma, and economic hardships, and put women in greater danger.
What are the factors associated with depressive symptoms among orphans and vulnerable children in Cambodia?
Compared to general children, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are more exposed to negative outcomes in life such as abuse and neglect. Consequently, OVC are more susceptible to depression. This paper investigated factors associated with depressive symptoms among OVC in Cambodia.
Psychological resilience and active social participation among older adults with incontinence: a qualitative study.
Takahashi K, Sase E, Kato A, Igari T, Kikuchi K, Jimba M.
Aging Ment Health. 2015 Jul 15:1-7.
Incontinence restricts participation in social activities among older adults. However, some older adults participate in social activities despite this condition. This study aimed to describe how older adults with incontinence could be resilient and actively participate in social activities.
Unnecessary Dieting Intention and Behavior among Female Students in Naha City, Japan.
Myint KZ, Nonaka D, Jimba M, Nanishi K, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Miyagi M, Shinjo M, Kobayashi J.
Trop Med Health. 2015 Jun;43(2):131-40.
Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.
(School Health Potential - From the Perspective of Global Health)
神馬征峰. 学校保健研究. 2015 57(2):74.
Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.
Nanishi K, Green J, Taguri M, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2015 Jun 24;10(6):e0129698.
Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.
High Incidence of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Implications for Postnatal Care in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Okawa S, Ansah EK, Nanishi K, Enuameh Y, Shibanuma A, Kikuchi K, Yasuoka J, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Oduro AR, Asare GQ, Hodgson A, Jimba M; Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project Team.
PLoS One. 2015 Jun 19;10(6):e0130712.
Reducing neonatal mortality is a major public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous studies have examined the determinants of neonatal mortality, but few have explored neonatal danger signs which potentially cause morbidity. This study assessed danger signs observed in neonates at birth, determined the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and identified factors associated with neonatal danger signs.
Patient Knowledge on Malaria Symptoms Is a Key to Promoting Universal Access of Patients to Effective Malaria Treatment in Palawan, the Philippines.
Matsumoto-Takahashi EL, Tongol-Rivera P, Villacorte EA, Angluben RU, Jimba M, Kano S.
PLoS One. 2015 Jun 16;10(6):e0127858.
Palawan, where health care facilities are still limited, is one of the most malaria endemic provinces in the Philippines. Since 1999, microscopists (community health workers) have been trained in malaria diagnosis and feasibility of early diagnosis and treatments have been enhanced throughout the province. To accelerate the universal access of malaria patients to diagnostic testing in Palawan, positive health seeking behavior should be encouraged when malaria infection is suspected.
Factors associated with RTCs among for-hire three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.
Jayatilleke AU, Poudel KC, Dharmaratne SD, Jayatilleke AC, Jimba M.
Inj Prev. 2015 Jun 9. pii: injuryprev-2014-041501.
For-hire three-wheeler crashes are a growing burden in Sri Lanka. We conducted this study to examine the factors associated with road traffic crashes (RTCs) among for-hire three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka.
The Role of Nutrition Training for Health Workers in Addressing Poor Feeding Practices and Undernutrition Among HIV-Positive Children.
Sunguya BF, Urassa DP, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
In Watson RR, editor. Health of HIV Infected People: Food, Nutrition and Lifestyle without Antiretroviral drugs. Vol. II: Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2015. p.113-130.
Social-Contextual Factors Associated with Alcohol Use among Adolescents of Traditional Alcohol User and Nonuser Ethnic Groups of Nepal.
Parajuli VJ, Macdonald S, Jimba M.
J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2015 Apr-Jun;14(2):151-65.
Nepalese society has diverse ethnic groups that can be categorized based on views toward alcohol. In this study, adolescents from the traditional alcohol nonuser (TANU) and traditional alcohol user (TAU) ethnic groups of Nepal are examined for their: (1) alcohol use behavior and (2) social–contextual factors associated with alcohol use.
HIV service delivery models towards ‘Zero AIDS-related Deaths’: a collaborative case study of 6 Asia and Pacific countries
Fujita M, Poudel KC, Green K, Wi T, Abeyewickreme I, Ghidinelli M, Kato M, Vun M, Sopheap S, San K, Bollen P, Rai K, Dahal A, Bhandari D, Boas P, Yaipupu J, Sirinirund P, Saonuam P, Duong B, Nhan D, Thu N, Jimba M.
BMC Health Services Research. 2015, 15:176.
In the Asia-Pacific region, limited systematic assessment has been conducted on HIV service delivery models. Applying an analytical framework of the continuum of prevention and care, this study aimed to assess HIV service deliveries in six Asia and Pacific countries from the perspective of service availability, linking approaches and performance monitoring for maximizing HIV case detection and retention.
Training Sri Lankan public health midwives on intimate partner violence: a pre- and post-intervention study
Jayatilleke AC, Yoshikawa K, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Fernando N, Jayatilleke AU, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2015. 15:331.
In many developing countries, intimate partner violence (IPV) training is not available for health providers. As a pioneer among developing countries, in 2009, the Sri Lankan Ministry of Health trained a group of community health providers known as public health midwives (PHMs) on IPV. We evaluated that training program's efficacy in improving PHMs' identification and management of IPV sufferers in Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Implementation of 5S management method for lean healthcare at a health center in Senegal: a qualitative study of staff perception
Kanamori S, Sow S, Castro MC, Matsuno R, Tsuru A, Jimba M.
Glob Health Action. 2015 Apr 7;8:27256.
5S is a lean method for workplace organization; it is an abbreviation representing five Japanese words that can be translated as sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. The 5S management method has been recognized recently as a potential solution for improving the quality of government healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries.
Introduction of a community water supply in rural western Kenya: impact on community wellbeing and child health
Sakisaka K, Chadeka EA, Nagi S, Mwandembo DS, Jimba M.
Int Health. 2015 Apr 2. pii: ihv015.
This study aimed to examine water availability and community health before and after tube wells were introduced in a rural western Kenyan community. Differences in impact among income quintile groups were quantified, and users' perceptions of their water supply measured.
Ghana's Ensure Mothers and Babies Regular Access to Care (EMBRACE) program: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial
Kikuchi K, Ansah E, Okawa S, Shibanuma A, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Oduro A, Quansah-Asare G, Hodgson A, Jimba M and for the Ghana EMBRACE Implementation Research Project.
The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals call for improving maternal and child health status. Their progress, however, has been minimal and uneven across countries. The continuum of care is a key to strengthening maternal, newborn, and child health. In this context, the Japanese government launched the Ghana Ensure Mothers and Babies Regular Access to Care (EMBRACE) Implementation Research Project in collaboration with the Ghanaian government. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process and effects of an intervention to increase the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health status in Ghana.
ガブリエル・パーマー. 本郷寛子、瀬尾智子 (訳)
Caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour for children under age five in malaria-endemic areas of rural Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.
A community-based malaria intervention was introduced through fixed and mobile clinics in rural Myanmar. This study attempted to identify treatment-seeking behaviour of caregivers for children under five and the determinants of appropriate treatment-seeking behaviour in mobile clinic villages (MV) and non-mobile clinic villages (NMV) in malaria-endemic rural areas in Myanmar.
[Correspondence] Informal social control and intimate partner violence.
Jayatilleke A, Jayatilleke A, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
Inj Prev. 2015 Feb;21(1):70. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041421.
神馬征峰他.『系統看護学講座 専門基礎分野 健康支援と社会保障制度 公衆衛生（第13版）』. 2-12. 医学書院.
神馬征峰他.『系統看護学講座 専門基礎分野 健康支援と社会保障制度 公衆衛生（第13版）』. 14-42. 医学書院.
神馬征峰他.『系統看護学講座 専門基礎分野 健康支援と社会保障制度 公衆衛生（第13版）』. 82-108. 医学書院.
神馬征峰他.『系統看護学講座 専門基礎分野 健康支援と社会保障制度 公衆衛生（第13版）』. 110-122. 医学書院.
What makes orphans in Kigali, Rwanda, non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy? Perspectives of their caregivers.
Kikuchi K, Poudel KC, Muganda J, Sato T, Mutabazi V, Muhayimpundu R, Majyambere A, Nyonsenga SP, Sase E, Jimba M.
J Int AIDS Soc. 2014 Dec 3;17(1):19310. doi: 10.7448/IAS.17.1.19310.
Every year, approximately 260,000 children are infected with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. The timely initiation and high level of maintenance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are crucial to reducing the suffering of HIV-positive children. We need to develop a better understanding of the background of children’s ART non-adherence because it is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to explore the background related to ART non-adherence, specifically in relation to the orphan status of children in Kigali, Rwanda.
Is Baby-Friendly Breastfeeding Support in Maternity Hospitals Associated with Breastfeeding Satisfaction Among Japanese Mothers?
Hongo H, Nanishi K, Shibanuma A, Jimba M.
Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov 4. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1631-8.
While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5% of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers.
星丹二, 麻原きよみ編.『これからの保健医療福祉行政論（第2版）』. 211-222. 日本看護協会出版社.
世界の現場で見えてきたこと ─フィールドワーカーが見た“学校保健”「第3回 ネパール」
健. 2014(11). 日本学校保健研修社.
Sense of coherence as a key to improve homebound status among older adults with urinary incontinence.
Takahashi K, Kato A, Igari T, Sase E, Shibanuma A, Kikuchi K, Nanishi K, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014 Sep 26. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12353.
Being homebound is regarded as a negative condition for social participation in Japan. However, little is known about the possibility of psychological resilience to prevent being homebound among older adults with urinary incontinence. The present study aimed to examine the association between sense of coherence as a measure of psychological resilience and being homebound among older adults with urinary incontinence.
Female community health volunteers service utilization for childhood illness- improving quality of health services only is not enough: a cross-sectional study in mid-western region, Nepal.
Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) are considered service providers for major health problems at the community level in Nepal. However, few studies have been conducted about the roles of FCHVs from the users' perspective. This study sought to examine the current status of FCHV service utilization and identify the determinants of caregivers' utilization of FCHVs' health services in the mid-western region of Nepal.
Power of Community Health in Implementing the Universal Health Insurance System in Japan.
JMAJ 57(1): 10-14, 2014.
(This article is a revised transcript of the presentation delivered by the author at the Takemi Program 30th Anniversary Symposium, which was held at the JMA Auditorium, Tokyo, on November 23, 2013.)
Strong nutrition governance is a key to addressing nutrition transition in low and middle-income countries: review of countries' nutrition policies.
Sunguya BF, Ong KI, Dhakal S, Mlunde LB, Shibanuma A, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
Nutr J. 2014 Jun 27;13(1):65.
Nutrition transition necessitates low and middle-income countries (LAMICs) to scale up their efforts in addressing the burdens of undernutrition and overweight/obesity. Magnitudes of undernutrition and overweight are high in LAMICs, but no study has reviewed the existence of nutrition policies to address it. No evidence is also available on the effect of nutrition policies and governance on the undernutrition and overweight/obesity patterns in such countries. We conducted a policy review to examine the presence and associations of nutrition policies and governance with the children's nutrition statuses in LAMICs.
Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Mlunde LB, Urassa DP, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2014 May 20;9(5):e98308.
We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs).
Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale: A Longitudinal Study.
Nanishi K, Jimba M.
J Hum Lact. 2014 May 13.
The 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has shown good reliability and validity to measure attitudes toward infant feeding in various countries. It is also known to be associated with breastfeeding intention and exclusivity. However, the IIFAS has not been psychometrically tested among Japanese women. This study thus aimed to develop the Japanese version of the IIFAS (IIFAS-J) and assess its reliability and validity.
Interprofessional education for whom? - challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.
Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries.
Acceptance of Wife Beating and Its Association with Physical Violence towards Women in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Couple's Data.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious global public health issue. Acceptance of wife beating is known to be associated with IPV, but few studies have analysed the acceptance of wife beating from both women and men's points of view. The objective of this study was to examine whether acceptance of wife beating among couples is associated with lifetime and past one-year physical IPV perpetration towards wives in Nepal.
Application of loop analysis for evaluation of malaria control interventions.
Despite continuous efforts and recent rapid expansion in the financing and implementation of malaria control interventions, malaria still remains one of the most devastating global health issues. Even in countries that have been successful in reducing the incidence of malaria, malaria control is becoming more challenging because of the changing epidemiology of malaria and waning community participation in control interventions. In order to improve the effectiveness of interventions and to promote community understanding of the necessity of continued control efforts, there is an urgent need to develop new methodologies that examine the mechanisms by which community-based malaria interventions could reduce local malaria incidence.
Prioritizing Mental Health Issues of Community Residents Affected by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.
Komasa Y, Kitamura A, Tsuboi M, Jimba M, Kimura S.
Clinical Neuropsychiatry (2013) 10, 6, 241-244.
Mental health consequences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Fukushima in 2011 may be observed in a longer term. In this report, lessons learned from the past dissters in Japan, and the present overview of experiences, mental and phychological distress among the people living in Fukushima are discussed.
Factors influencing the National School Health Policy implementation in Lao PDR: a multi-level case study.
Saito J, Keosada N, Tomokawa S, Akiyama T, Kaewviset S, Nonaka D, Waikugul J, Kobayashi J, Souvanvixay M, Jimba M.
Health Promot Int. 2014 Apr 2.
In the last decade, a National School Health Policy (NSHP) has been formulated in several developing countries following the recommendations of the Global School Health Initiative. However, NSHP implementations across the country have not been fully shared. This study aimed to identify factors that have influenced implementation of the NSHP in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We conducted key informant interviews with 20 NSHP implementers and document reviews.
Perceived Family Support, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Amiya RM, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Pandey BD, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 6;9(3):e90959.
Depression and suicidal thinking occur frequently alongside HIV/AIDS, triggering profound detrimental impacts on quality of life, treatment adherence, disease progression, and mortality. Yet the psychosocial factors contributing to these psychiatric comorbidities remain underexplored, particularly in the developing country context. This study thus examined different dimensions of perceived family support in relation to depression and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nepal.
Determining the impact of community awareness-raising activities on the prevention of malaria transmission in Palawan, the Philippines.
Matsumoto-Takahashi EL, Tongol-Rivera P, Villacorte EA, Angluben RU, Yasuoka J, Kano S, Jimba M.
Parasitol Int. 2014 Feb 7. pii: S1383-5769(14)00011-7.
Palawan has the highest malaria endemicity in the Philippines, and malaria remains a major health burden in the region. In 1999, 344 microscopists were trained in Palawan. This allowed for early diagnosis and prompt treatment throughout the island. To take a significant step toward the elimination of malaria on the island, microscopists implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists.
Acculturation factors and metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Brazilian men in Japan: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
Tashiro M, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Noto H, Masuo M, Jimba M.
J Immigr Minor Health. 2014 Feb;16(1):68-76.
This study examines the acculturation effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its related factors, among immigrant Japanese-Brazilian men in Japan. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized. In the quantitative study (n = 149), multiple logistic regression analyses estimated the impact of length of residence and arrival age on MetS. For the qualitative study, five focus group discussions were conducted with participants (n = 26) from the quantitative study sample. The oldest arrival age group was more likely to have MetS (OR, 95% CI 4.41, 1.09-17.78) after adjusting for covariates; whereas, length of residence had no association with MetS.
Cross-border promotion of formula milk in Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Phoutthakeo P, Otsuka K, Ito C, Sayamoungkhoun P, Kounnavong S, Jimba M.
J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Jan;50(1):51-6.
This study aims to examine the influence of formula milk promotion via the media from Thailand to Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), where a cultural and linguistic proximity are shared. A cross-sectional study was conducted through a structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion (FGD) with mothers who had children under 2 years of age and lived in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR.
Effectiveness of a breastfeeding self-efficacy intervention: do hospital practices make a difference?
Otsuka K, Taguri M, Dennis CL, Wakutani K, Awano M, Yamaguchi T, Jimba M.
Matern Child Health J. 2014 Jan;18(1):296-306.
Breastfeeding self-efficacy interventions are important for improving breastfeeding outcomes. However, the circumstances that may influence the effectiveness of the interventions are unclear, especially in the context of hospitals with suboptimal infant feeding practices. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a self-efficacy intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding, and further assessed the difference in its effect by hospital-routine type.
Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers' Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Mlunde LB, Urassa DP, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
Front Public Health. 2013 Sep 24;1:37. eCollection 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24350206
Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices.
What are the factors associated with HIV testing among male injecting and non-injecting drug users in Lashio, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.
Saw YM, Yasuoka J, Saw TN, Poudel KC, Tun S, Jimba M.
BMJ Open. 2013 Jun 20;3(6). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23794581
HIV testing is an effective intervention for reducing HIV risk and providing information on HIV status. However, uptake of HIV testing is a major challenge within the drug-using population due to the stigma and discrimination associated with their illegal drug use behaviours. This study thus aimed to identify factors associated with HIV testing among injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) in Lashio, Myanmar.
Taking stock of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related Millennium Development Goals: current roadblocks, paths ahead.
Saw YM, Win KL, Shiao LW, Thandar MM, Amiya RM, Shibanuma A, Tun S, Jimba M.
Int J Equity Health. 2013 Sep 11;12:78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24025845
Myanmar is a developing country with considerable humanitarian needs, rendering its pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) an especially high priority. Yet progress to date remains under-examined on key fronts. Particularly within the three health-related MDGs (MDGs 4, 5, and 6), the limited data reported point to patchy levels of achievement. This study was undertaken to provide an overview and assessment of Myanmar's progress toward the health-related MDGs, along with possible solutions for accelerating health-related development into 2015 and beyond. The review highlights off-track progress in the spheres of maternal and child health (MDGs 4 and 5). It also shows Myanmar's achievements toward MDG 6 targets--in the areas of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis.
Coinfection of Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Positive People in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Poudel KC, Palmer PH, Jimba M, Mizoue T, Kobayashi J, Poudel-Tandukar K.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2013 Sep 20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24056798
Previous research has studied the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among HIV-positive people regardless of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status. Our objectives were to measure the seroprevalence of HCV both in HIV-positive people receiving ART and in those not receiving ART and to describe the characteristics of coinfected people in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Integrating child health services into malaria control services of village malaria workers in remote Cambodia: service utilization and knowledge of malaria management of caregivers.
Hasegawa A, Yasuoka J, Ly P, Nguon C, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2013 Aug 23;12(1):292. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968533
Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs' child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers' VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers' knowledge of malaria management.
Long-term impact of community-based information, education and communication activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors in Vietnam: a longitudinal study.
Takanashi K, Quyen DT, Le Hoa NT, Khan NC, Yasuoka J, Jimba M.
PLoS One. 2013 Aug 12;8(8):e70654. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23950978
Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors.
Current salt reduction policies across gradients of inequality-adjusted human development in the WHO European region: minding the gaps.
Rodriguez-Fernandez R, Siopa M, Simpson SJ, Amiya RM, Breda J, Cappuccio FP.
Public Health Nutr. 2013 Aug 8:1-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924617
OBJECTIVE: To assess current salt reduction policies in countries of the WHO European Region against the backdrop of varying levels of human development adjusted for income, education and health (longevity) inequalities.
DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study, with data gathered through systematic review of relevant databases and supplementary information provided by WHO Nutrition Counterparts.
Reliability tests and validation tests of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8) as an index of satisfaction with childbirth-related care among Filipino women.
Matsubara C, Green J, Astorga LT, Daya EL, Jervoso HC, Gonzaga EM, Jimba M.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013 Dec 17;13:235. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24341288
Satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of care during childbirth. Previous research found that a good environment at a health facility can increase the number of deliveries at that facility. In contrast, an unsatisfying childbirth experience could cause postpartum mental disorder. Therefore it is important to measure mothers' satisfaction with their childbirth experiences. We tested whether the eight-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) provided useful information about satisfaction with childbirth-related care. The government of the Philippines promotes childbirth at health facilities, so we tested the CSQ-8 in the Philippine cities of Ormoc and Palo.
Intention to seek professional psychological help among college students in Turkey: influence of help-seeking attitudes.
Seyfi F, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Jimba M.
BMC Res Notes. 2013 Dec 6;6:519. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313965
Depression rates are high among college students in Turkey, but often students do not seek mental health care. This study aimed to examine the association between attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and intention to seek professional psychological help among such college students. We also examined the factors associated with students' professional psychological help-seeking attitudes. We conducted this cross-sectional study among 456 conveniently sampled graduate and undergraduate students in Ankara. We collected students' data using self-administered, structured questionnaires in the Turkish language and then analyzed the data using both descriptive and multivariate methods.
Development and psychometric testing of the Japanese version of the maternal breastfeeding evaluation scale.
Hongo H, Green J, Otsuka K, Jimba M.
J Hum Lact. 2013 Nov;29(4):611-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23777624
Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months after delivery is globally recommended as optimal infant feeding. However, if mothers evaluate their own breastfeeding by this standard, many might be disappointed because they fail to meet it. In contrast, the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale (MBFES) measures mothers' satisfaction with breastfeeding regardless of the duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding. The MBFES has been used in Western countries, but not in Japan.
Determining the active role of microscopists in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention: a cross-sectional study in Palawan, the Philippines.
Matsumoto-Takahashi EL, Tongol-Rivera P, Villacorte EA, Angluben RU, Yasuoka J, Kano S, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2013 Nov 1;12:384. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24175934
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent and fatal diseases among the inhabitants of Palawan in the Philippines. Palawan, where healthcare services remain limited, has the highest malaria endemicity in the country. To eliminate malaria, effective prevention measures should be conducted alongside early diagnosis and prompt treatment, which are the major tasks of the trained microscopists in Palawan. However, while the microscopists have implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria, the nature and quality of these activities have not been evaluated. The present study identified the factors associated with the strengthening of community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention implemented by microscopists in Palawan.
Receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in an urban setting in Lao PDR.
Saito J, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Foung L, Vilaysom S, Jimba M.
Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):389-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634572
Tobacco marketing is a contributing factor to adolescent smoking, and now targeting adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Especially, promotional items with tobacco brand logos have a great impact on adolescent smoking. The authors evaluated whether receptivity to tobacco marketing is associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in Lao PDR.
Efficacy of in-service nutrition training for mid-level providers to improve feeding practices among HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Mlunde LB, Urassa DP, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
Trials. 2013 Oct 25;14:352. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156500
Feeding practices and child undernutrition can be improved when trained health workers provide proper nutrition counseling to caregivers. However, this important management component is difficult to achieve in countries where trained health workers are limited; Tanzania is no exception. In rural and semi-urban areas, mid-level providers (MLPs) are left to manage diseases such as HIV/AIDS.Training health workers in nutrition has been shown to be an effective intervention among HIV-negative children elsewhere, but no studies have been conducted among HIV-positive children. Furthermore, in Tanzania and other countries with MLPs, no evidence currently exists demonstrating an improvement in nutrition among children who receive health services given by MLPs. This study thus aims to examine the efficacy of nutrition training of MLPs on feeding practices and the nutrition status of HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania.
Effectiveness of nutrition training of health workers toward improving caregivers' feeding practices for children aged six months to two years: a systematic review.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Mlunde LB, Shakya P, Urassa DP, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
Nutr J. 2013 May 20;12:66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23688174
Nutrition training of health workers can help to reduce child undernutrition. Specifically, trained health workers might contribute to this end through frequent nutrition counseling of caregivers. This may improve child-feeding practices and thus reduce the risk of undernutrition among children of counseled caregivers. Although studies have shown varied impacts of health workers' nutrition training on child feeding practices, no systematic review of the effectiveness of such intervention has yet been reported. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of nutrition training for health workers on child feeding practices including feeding frequency, energy intake, and dietary diversity among children aged six months to two years.
Improved quality of life after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in Nepalese women.
Dhital R, Otsuka K, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Dangal G, Jimba M.
BMC Womens Health. 2013 May 9;13:22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23657142
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common gynecological condition that can affect quality of life (QOL) in women. In Nepal, the prevalence of POP is high, but many affected women are still deprived of treatment. Vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair is one of the common treatment options for advanced POP. However, QOL outcomes after surgery have not been reported in low-income countries. Thus, we aimed to examine changes in QOL among Nepalese women with POP after such surgery.
Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.
Akiyama T, Win T, Maung C, Ray P, Sakisaka K, Tanabe A, Kobayashi J, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2013 Apr 12;13:337. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23587014
In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students.
Better learning in schools to improve attitudes toward abstinence and intentions for safer sex among adolescents in urban Nepal.
Shrestha RM, Otsuka K, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Lamichhane M, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2013 Mar 20;13:22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509909
School-based sex education is an effective medium to convey health information and skills about preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. However, research on school-based sex education is limited in many developing countries, including Nepal. This study thus had two main objectives: (1) to assess students' evaluation of school-based sex education, and (2) to examine the associations between students' evaluations of school-based sex education and their (a) attitudes toward abstinence and (b) intentions for safer sex.
Limited potential of school textbooks to prevent tobacco use among students grade 1-9 across multiple developing countries: a content analysis study.
Saito J, Nonaka D, Mizoue T, Kobayashi J, Jayatilleke AC, Shrestha S, Kikuchi K, Haque SE, Yi S, Ayi I, Jimba M.
BMJ Open. 2013 Feb 21;3(2). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23430601
Approximately 68,000 to 84,000 adolescents. These are numbers of adolescents who start smoking every day in developing countries. Where can we reach them to prevent their first cigarette? Schools! Especially in developing countries, the advantage of school-based education is compounding as the enrolment of children rapidly increases, and the school textbooks are the most commonly used and crucial educational resources. This is the first multi-country study to evaluate the content of school textbooks about tobacco use prevention in developing countries. The authors hope that this study contributes to seize the chance of tobacco prevention education in developing countries by improving the contents of textbooks.
At the intersection of public health and criminal justice systems
Amiya RM, Cope JE, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
Lancet. 2013 Feb 16;381(9866):534. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415301
In this correspondence to the Lancet, we comment on the Oct 27editorial highlighting the 2012 UN report, "Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific". We commend the report and the Lancet's focus on the impacts of legal policies and systems on the health and human rights of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS responses. At the same time, we propose a broader consideration of how public health and criminal justice systems may intersect and sometimes collide - including criminal HIV transmission and exposure laws, punitive drug control policies, and criminalization of sexual and gender minorities.
Arsenic Exposure and Oral Cavity Lesions in Bangladesh
Syed EH, Melkonian S, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Ahmed A, Islam T, Parvez F, Slavkovich V, Graziano JH, Ahsan H, Jimba M.
J Occup Environ Med. 2013;55(1):59-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201591
Toxic metals have profound effects on oral health. We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure on oral health for the first time, using data from an epidemiological study in Bangladesh. Participants with urinary arsenic levels (286.1-5000.0µg/g) were 2.90 and 2.79 times more likely to develop arsenical lesions of the gums and tongue, respectively, compared with those of urinary arsenic levels of 7.0-134.0µg/g. In summary, higher levels of arsenic exposure showed the risk of arsenical lesions of the gums and tongue. Providing safe water can shun such diseases among arsenic-affected people.
Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal.
N, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2013 Jan 10;13:22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305620
Leprosy patients are stigmatized in Nepalese society. Although intensive rehabilitation support is increasing by the psychological and socioeconomic support networks of leprosy-affected people and their families, these individuals have to deal with a poor quality of life and an ongoing struggle against stigma. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. As a result, adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL. Our results suggest that mental health support programs are necessary for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents.
World Health Assembly Agendas and trends of international health issues for the last 43 years: Analysis of World Health Assembly Agendas between 1970 and 2012
Kitamura T, Obara H, Takashima Y, Takahashi K, Inaoka K, Nagai M, Endo H, Jimba M, Sugiura Y.
Health Policy. 2013 May;110(2-3):198-206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23295159
The World Health Organization (WHO) has the objective of attaining the highest possible level of health for all. The World Health Assembly (WHA) functions as the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. The WHA agenda have to be carefully selected to achieve the objective of the WHO since it determines the policies of the WHO. In this article, we analysed the WHA agenda items between 1970 and 2012 from the viewpoints of chronological change, categories, and relationship with major health issues milestones to provide supportive evidence to set balanced WHA agenda items in the future.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and C-reactive protein in persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
Poudel-Tandukar K, Poudel KC., Jimba M, Kobayashi J, Johnson AC, Palmer PH.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar;29(3):528-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23003113
This is the first study exploring the association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a cohort of people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we discussed that a risk of having high level of inflammation (CRP >3 mg/L) may be high among HIV-positive men and women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum level of <20 ng/mL. These findings are important in that they may lead to potential new intervention strategies (e.g. supplementation, dietary changes, etc.) to increase improved health and quality of life for HIV-positive people.
Exposure to violence in relation to depressive symptoms among male and female adolescent students in Cambodia.
Yi S, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Palmer PH, Yi S, Jimba M.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 Mar;48(3):397-405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820619
In post-conflict Cambodia, adolescents continue to suffer from violence and subsequent psychological disorders. This article is written based on the first research study on adolescent health in Cambodia. It reports the high prevalence of exposure to family and community violence and addresses how the exposure might be related to poor mental health condition of adolescents in a developing country. Several potential pathways of the relationship are discussed.
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG): association between its addiction, self-control and mental disorders among young people in Vietnam.
Son DT, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Otsuka K, Jimba M.
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;59(6):570-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718852
30 days for continuously playing MMORPG, then game room staff members bought me food, when I had fallen asleep on the keyboard. I did not shower and change clothes during that time. My mother had to pay 250 USD to take me out of the room. That's my record." An under 18 year-old boy said to me in the interview. Much of what we know about MMORPG and mental health in Vietnam comes from case reports from mental health treatment settings. This study contributes to the literature by adding information on the characteristics of MMORPG gamers and the association between their addiction and psychological status among youths in Vietnam, where limited research has been done.
Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Susceptibility to Smoking among Non-smoking Male Students in an Urban Setting in Lao PDR.
Saito J, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Foung L, Vilaysom S, Jimba M.
Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):389-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634572
This is rare tobacco research study in Lao PDR, a lower-middle income country in Asia. We argued that focusing only on the restriction of promotional brand items is not enough for preventing smoking among Lao male adolescents. The comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing is indeed critical. In addition, discouraging recognition of pro-tobacco messages is also strongly needed to reduce smoking susceptibility. These findings will contribute to tobacco control research in Asia. Asian countries are facing various challenges for adolescent tobacco use prevention. We need more research in this region.
Making schools healthy among Burmese migrants in Thailand.
Akiyama T, Win T, Maung C, Ray P, Kaji A, Tanabe A, Jimba M, Kobayashi J.
Health Promot Int. 2013 Jun;28(2):223-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22434790
In Thailand, a health-promoting school (HPS) program is in place nationwide. However, this policy has not covered Burmese migrant schools. Therefore, to ensure the feasibility of the implementation of a HPS program, we conducted evaluations and an intervention on school health in migrant schools in Thailand. We included 44 primary-level schools in the Tak province in 2008. We were able to evaluate the results of the intervention in 43 of 44 schools in the subsequent year.
A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dares Salaam, Tanzania
Mlunde LB, Poudel KC, Sunguya BF, Mbwambo JK, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Ubuguyu O, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):1061. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23216949
About 3.8 million young people aged 15 to 24 years were living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa alone in 2009. Even under such high toll, young people continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In other regions, parents have played an important role to reduce risky sexual behaviors among young people. We conducted this study in Dares Salaam to examine the parental role in reducing risky sexual behaviors among secondary school students. We found unprecedented high magnitude of risky sexual behaviors among students. We therefore called for the increase in parental monitoring as it was found to have played a significant role to improve condom use particularly among male students.
A new analytical framework of 'continuum of prevention and care' to maximize HIV case detection and retention in care in Vietnam
Fujita M, Poudel KC, Do Thi N, Bui Duc D, Nguyen Van K, Green K, Nguyen Thi Minh T, Kato M, Jacka D, Cao Thi Thanh T, Nguyen Thanh L, Jimba M.
BMC Health Services Research. 2012;12(1):483. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23272730
The global initiative 'Treatment 2.0' calls for expanding the evidence base of optimal HIV service delivery models to maximize HIV case detection and retention in care. However limited systematic assessment has been conducted in countries with concentrated HIV epidemic. We aimed to assess HIV service availability and service connectedness in Vietnam.
神馬征峰. フィールドに出よう！12 「フィールドワーカーたちの空」.
安岡潤子. フィールドに出よう！11 「共に暮らし、心通わせ、同じ目標に向かう ―スリランカ農村の環境を活かしてマラリア予防」.
秋山剛. フィールドに出よう！10 「困難な社会状況の中，懸命に生きる人々の姿─中米とタイ・ミャンマー国境地帯での活動経験から」.
Infant feeding practices and breastfeeding duration in Japan: A review.
Inoue M, Binns CW, Otsuka K, Jimba M, Matsubara M.
Int Breastfeed J. 2012 Oct 25;7(1):15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23098220
This is the first literature review to summarize the factors associating with breastfeeding outcomes in Japan. Smoking, low birth weight of infants and maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply were negative influences on breastfeeding duration, while support from partners is associated with continued breastfeeding. Unlike studies from other countries, our review found that maternal age, family income and maternal educational levels, were not associated with breastfeeding duration in Japan. To monitor risk factors of breastfeeding outcomes and to provide the basis for promoting breastfeeding, cohort studies are warranted with larger samples sizes and clear definitions of breastfeeding.
Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study.
Shiao LW, Chiang TL.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012 Oct 13;12(1):110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061518
Like other developed countries in Asia, Taiwan is a destination of immigration. Female immigrants, mainly from China and Southeast Asia, come to Taiwan as spouse of Taiwanese men. With the drop of fertility rate to 0.9 births per woman, children of immigrant women have contributed significantly to the growing share of total newborn (10%). Despite a lack of evidence, children born to foreign-born mothers are portrayed negatively as having inferior health and therefore require extra expenditure of social resources. This study provides an opposite view showing that foreign-born women do not experience worse birth outcomes regardless of the disadvantaged socioeconomic position of their families.
The quality of life and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients in a Bangladeshi population.
Syed EH, Poudel KC, Sakisaka K, Yasuoka J, Ahsan H, Jimba M.
J Health Popul Nutr. 2012 Sep;30(3):262-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082628
Exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern worldwide, affecting 150 million people in more than 70 countries including Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected people in Araihazar, Bangladesh, where arsenic concentration levels ranging from <10µg/L to 864µg/L. Arsenic-affected patients showed lower QOL and mental health status compare with non-patients. As a result, the importance of appropriate interventions requires improving the well-being of arsenic-affected patients.
古林安希子. フィールドに出よう！9 「フィールドを楽しむための3つのポイント」.
大塚恵子, 齋藤順子, 神馬征峰. 「海外における健康政策の成功と失敗からの学び」.
長谷川文. フィールドに出よう！8 「海外を自分のフィールドにするということ－ハイチの震災復興支援－歌って踊るヘルスプロモーション」. 公衆衛生. 2012;76(8).
カリブ海の島・ハイチ "来月からハイチに1年行ってくれる？" 上司から言われた時，私はハイチがどこにあるのか知らなかった．地図でやっと見つけた小さな島は，遠い世界であった．中米カリブ海の島．リゾートを思い浮かべる方も多いだろう．しかし，ハイチはそんなきらびやかな世界ではない．そんな世界からはほど遠い，現実と向き合っている国であった．（続きは雑誌を）
Perceived Family Support and Depression among People Living with HIV/AIDS in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Shrestha S, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Kobayashi J, Pandey BD, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Jimba M.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2012 Sep 19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22993234
Depression is a mental condition that is challenging HIV treatment among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The perception of support from family was advantageous against mental condition of chronic disease patients. We assumed that it also has beneficial effect against depression among PLWHA. Thus, we conducted this research in an Asian country, Nepal, where mental health of PLWHA is always ignored. As expected, the perception of family support has protective effect against depression among PLWHA. This finding can contribute in reducing depression among PLWHA and has opened gateways for further research on different aspects of family support.
Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) improves undernutrition among ART treated, HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Mlunde LB, Otsuka K, Yasuoka J, Urassa DP, Mkopi NP, and Jimba M.
Nutr J 2012, 11:60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22931107
This is the first study that examined the association between Ready-to-Use- Therapeutic-Foods (RUTF) and undernutrition among HIV-positive children under antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted this study against the background of unprecedented magnitude of undernutrition among HIV-positive children even when treated with ART. In this study, RUTF was associated with better underweight and wasting statuses. Moreover, children treated with RUTF for more than just four months were less likely to suffer from chronic form of undernutrition, stunting. Results of this study are important to advocate for scaling up the use of RUTF, which was also endorsed by the World Health Organization.
Promoting community kowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers.
Lim S, Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Ly P, Nguon C, Jimba M.
BMC Res Notes. 2012 Aug 3;5(1):405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863397
Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in remote forested areas. However, few studies have assessed the quality of VMWs' services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. This is a pioneering study to compare malaria knowledge and actions between a village with VMWs and a village with a health center. VMWs successfully played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria control. The current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other villages, where malaria still remains a public health challenge.
菊池君代. フィールドに出よう！7 「フィールドワークの長い道のり－人々の顔の見える研究のために」.
本郷寛子・新井基子・五十嵐祐子共著. 南山堂. 2012. http://www.nanzando.com/books/50341.php
Migration of Health Workers in the Pacific Islands: A Bottleneck to Health Development.
Yamamoto TS, Sunguya BF, Shiao LW, Amiya RM, Saw YM, Jimba M.
Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012 Jul;24(4):697-709. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815302
This is a review article about the current state of human resources for health (HRH) in the Pacific Island Region. We showed that the number of countries facing critical shortages has increased, though the average density of health workers is increasing there. Migration is a critical aspect of the HRH shortage, with New Zealand and Australia as the most important destinations for health workers in this region. Although a code of practice for recruitment exists, it has not been successful to stem the brain drain. Commitments from both source and destination countries could make migration a win-win situation.
High risk of ART non-adherence and delay of ART initiation among HIV positive double orphans in Kigali, Rwanda.
Kikuchi K, Poudel KC, Muganda J, Majyambere A, Otsuka K, Sato T, Mutabazi V, Nyonsenga SP, Muhayimpundu R, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41998. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22860043
This study is one of the first to report pediatric ART adherence in Rwanda and one of the few studies which found an association of ART adherence with four types of different orphan status (double orphan, paternal orphan, maternal orphan, and non-orphan). Findings demonstrated (1) the high risk of non-adherence to ART, (2) the delay in HIV detection and ART initiation among HIV positive double orphans. This article highlighted the urgent need for particular interventions for HIV positive double orphans.
Maternal exposure to intimate partner violence and the risk of undernutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh.
Rahman M. Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Yoshikawa K, Jimba.
Am J Public Health. 2012 Jul;102(7):1336-45.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676499
Data from India provide an association between maternal physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, assessed through one single global question with stunting among children aged 12-35 months. Using nationally representative data from Bangladesh, our findings revealed an association between maternal exposure to physical or sexual IPV and child underweight and stunting. Our findings reinforce the evidence that improving child nutrition is an additional reason to strengthen efforts to protect women from physical and sexual IPV.
大川純代. フィールドに出よう！6 「その先で待っているのは，成長した自分と元気な子どもたち－ザンビアHIV母子感染予防に関するフィールド調査」.
Sibling care, school performance, and depression among adolescent caretakers in Cambodia.
Yi S, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Palmer PH, Yi S, Yanagisawa S, Jimba M.
Asian J Psychiatr. 2012 Jun;5(2):132-6.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22813655
In developing countries, number of trained health workforce is not sufficient and access to healthcare is difficult. In such situation, home-based care for young children is crucial. Previous research has found that sibling caretaking can have positive impacts on the development and well-being of the caretakers. However, sibling caretakers can be deprived of educational rights by being forced to stay at home for helping housekeeping works and taking care of their younger siblings. Sibling caretaking might, therefore, have negative impacts on school performance, which in turn affects mental health conditions of the school-age caretakers. This study is the first study to examine the negative impacts of sibling care responsibility on school performance and mental health conditions of adolescent caretakers in Cambodia.
A lifetime experience of violence and adverse reproductive outcomes: findings from population surveys in India.
Yoshikawa K, Agrawal NR, Poudel KC, Jimba M.
Biosci Trends. 2012 Jun;6(3):115-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22890159
Have you ever thought that violence may be related to miscarriages, abortions, or stillbirths? This study attempted to investigate the relationship between violence from partner and non-live birth outcomes using secondary data of a national sample of Indian women. And we found that women who experienced violence were more likely to experience non-live births in their lifetime. Though the evidence does not provide chronological relationship, you would learn violence is not only harmful for physical and mental health of women but also for reproductive health. This study suggests the importance of prompt actions to reduce violence towards women in India.
高橋朋子. フィールドに出よう！5 「フィールドは世界と自分に向き合う場」.
Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: a Multi-Country Study.
Nonaka D, Jimba M, Mizoue T, Kobayashi J, Yasuoka J, Ayi I, Jayatilleke AC, Shrestha S, Kikuchi K, Haque SE, Yi S.
PLoS ONE. 2012;7(5):e36629. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22574203
This is a unique, multi-country study that investigated the contents of textbooks used by primary and secondary school children in 9 tropical countries endemic for malaria. The textbooks examined in this study rarely addressed life skills information such as the use of insecticide-treated nets, the need for prompt treatment from a health worker, protection of children and pregnant women and recommended therapy. Improving school textbook content in accordance with a national malaria control strategy could be a key challenge in malaria endemic countries. The authors are continuously investigating textbooks, focusing on soil-transmitted helminthiasis, HIV/AIDS and tobacco use for better health education at school.
齋藤順子. フィールドに出よう！4 「公衆衛生活動の糧はフィールドワーク！－中国・青年海外協力隊で新しい自分と出会う」.
高橋競. フィールドに出よう！3 「フィールドは辛くて，とても面白い－コロンビアJICA長期専門家としての地雷被災者支援」.
野中大輔. フィールドに出よう！2 「沈黙は罪なり－ガーナでの寄生虫対策」.
神馬征峰. フィールドに出よう！1 「フィールドワークは宝さがし」.
本郷寛子. 助産雑誌. 2012;66(1):34-40.
Scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality: the Village Malaria Worker project in Cambodia.
Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Ly P, Nguon C, Socheat D, Jimba M.
Malar J. 2012 Jan 4; 11:4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217322
A girl was born deaf in rural Cambodia. Despite her disability, she always wanted to help people who suffered from infectious diseases in her village, where there were no health facilities. Now, she works as a Village Malaria Worker (VMW) and is helping villagers prevent and control malaria. -- The Cambodian government is promoting malaria control in rural villages by training residents to become VMWs. This article evaluates if and how the project has been expanded effectively nationwide.
High rate of unintended pregnancies after knowing of HIV infection among HIV positive women under antiretroviral treatment in Kigali, Rwanda.
Kikuchi K, Wakasugi N, Poudel KC, Sakisaka K, Jimba M.
Biosci Trends. 2011 Dec; 5(6): 255-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22281539
Undernutrition among HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough.
Sunguya BF, Poudel KC, Otsuka K, Yasuoka J, Mlunde LB, Urassa DP, Mkopi NP, Jimba M.
BMC Public Health. 2011 Nov 16; 11: 869. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087543
Quality of antenatal care services in the Birim North District of Ghana: contribution of the community-based health planning and services program.
Naariyong S, Poudel KC, Rahman M, Yasuoka J, Otsuka K, Jimba M.
Matern Child Health J. 2011 Sep 14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21915678
Physicians are a key to encouraging cessation of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Amiya RM, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Kobayashi J, Pandey BD, Jimba M. BMC Public Health. 2011 Aug 31; 11: 677. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21878132
Knowing the consequences of unprotected sex with seroconcordant partner is associated with increased safer sex intentions among HIV-positive men in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Nakahara S, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011 Jun; 29(3): 191-9.
Non-communicable diseases in southeast Asia.
Poudel KC, Fujita M, Green K, Poudel-Tandukar K, Jimba M. Lancet. 2011 Jun 11; 377(9782): 2004-5.
Content analysis of school textbooks on health topics: a systematic review.
Nomoto M, Nonaka D, Mizoue T, Kobayashi J, Jimba M. Biosci Trends. 2011; 5(2): 61-8.
Perceived social support and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans in urban Kenya.
Okawa S, Yasuoka J, Ishikawa N, Poudel KC, Ragi A, Jimba M. AIDS Care. 2011 Sep; 23(9):1177-85.
Social capital and life satisfaction: a cross-sectional study on persons with musculoskeletal impairments in Hanoi, Vietnam.
Takahashi K, Nguyen TM, Poudel KC, Sakisaka K, Jimba M, Yasuoka J.BMC Public Health. 2011 Apr 1; 11: 206.
Human Security Approaches for Disaster Recovery and Resilience.
Jimba M, Hubbard S, Sase E, Suzuki T, Otsuka K. Japan Medical Association Journal. 2011; 54(5): 338-41.
Is staying overnight in a farming hut a risk factor for malaria infection in a setting with insecticide-treated bed nets in rural Laos?
Nonaka D, Laimanivong S, Kobayashi J, Chindavonsa K, Kano S, Vanisaveth V, Yasuoka J, Phompida S, Jimba M. Malar J. 2010 Dec 23; 9: 372.
Reliability and validity of a Nepalese version of the Kiddo-KINDL in adolescents.
Yamaguchi N, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Shakya D, Ravens-Sieberer U, Jimba M. Biosci Trends. 2010 Aug; 4(4): 178-85.
Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia.
Yi S, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Palmer PH, Yi S, Jimba M. BMC Public Health. 2010 Aug 12; 10(1): 477.
Intimate partner violence in Sri Lanka.
Jayatilleke AC, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Jayatilleke AU, Jimba M. Biosci Trends. 2010 Jun; 4(3): 90-5.
Sibling caregiving among children orphaned by AIDS: synthesis of recent studies for policy implications.
Yanagisawa S, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Health Policy. 2010 Jun 28; 98(2-3): 121-30.
Intimate partner violence among general and urban poor populations in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Oshiro A, Poudyal AK, Poudel KC, Jimba M, Hokama T. J Interpers Violence. 2011 Jul; 26(10): 2073-92.
Traffic rule violations of private bus drivers and bus crashes in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.
Jayatilleke AU, Poudel KC, Nakahara S, Dharmaratne SD, Jayatilleke AC, Jimba M. Traffic Inj Prev. 2010 Jun; 11(3): 263-9.
Changing poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness: findings from a cross-sectional study in Granada, Nicaragua.
Sakisaka K, Jimba M, Hanada K. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2010 Jun 1; 10:10.
Wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of intimate partner violence by husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Jayatilleke A, Poudel KC, Sakisaka K, Yasuoka J, Jayatilleke AU, Jimba M.J Interpers Violence. 2011 Feb; 26(3): 414-32.
Correlates of sharing injection equipment among male injecting drug users in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Yasuoka J, Joshi AB, Jimba M. Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Nov; 21(6): 507-10.
Assessing the quality of service of village malaria workers to strengthen community-based malaria control in Cambodia.
Yasuoka J, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Nguon C, Ly P, Socheat D, Jimba M. Malar J. 2010 Apr 23; 9: 109.
School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers.
Ayi I, Nonaka D, Adjovu JK, Hanafusa S, Jimba M, Bosompem KM, Mizoue T, Takeuchi T, Boakye DA, Kobayashi J. Malar J. 2010 Apr 18; 9: 98.
Rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.
Sugiura Y, Ju YS, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. Biosci Trends. 2010 Feb; 4(1): 9-16.
Unsafe Sexual Behaviors among HIV-positive Men in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Poudel KC, Nakahara S, Poudel-Tandukar K, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. AIDS Behav. 2009; 13: 1143-50
Screening for intimate partner violence.
Jayatilleke A, Poudel KC, Jimba M. JAMA. 2009; 302: 2434.
Influencing factors for seeking HIV voluntary counseling and testing among tuberculosis patients in Cambodia.
Yi S, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Ichikawa M, Tan V, Jimba M. AIDS Care. 2009; 21: 529-34.
Health promoting schools in urban, semi-urban and rural Lao PDR.
Yoshimura N, Jimba M, Poudel KC, Chanthavisouk C, Iwamoto A, Phommasack B, Saklokham K. Health Promot Int. 2009; 24:166-76.
Survey of food hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Vietnam.
Takanashi K, Chonan Y, Quyen DT, Khan NC, Poudel KC, Jimba M. J Health Popul Nutr. 2009; 27:602-11.
Working conditions of bus drivers in the private sector and bus crashes in Kandy district, Sri Lanka: A case-control study.
Jayatilleke AU, Nakahara S, Dharmaratne SD, Silva AC, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Inj Prev. 2009; 15: 80-6.
Public and private sector treatment of malaria in Lao PDR.
Nonaka D, Vongseththa K, Kobayashi J, Bounyadeth S, Kano S, Phompida S, Jimba M. Acta Trop. 2009; 112: 283-7.
The relationship between trust in mass media and the healthcare system and individual health: evidence from the Asia Barometer Survey.
Tokuda Y, Fujii S, Jimba M, Inoguchi T. BMC Med. 2009; 7:4.
Interpersonal trust and quality-of-life: a cross-sectional study in Japan.
Tokuda Y, Jimba M, Yanai H, Fujii S, Inoguchi T. PLoS One. 2008; 3: e3985.
Hidden criteria for out-of-home day-care centre admission in Pokhara, Nepal: a longitudinal observational study.
Nakahara S, Poudel KC, Lopchan M, Ichikawa M, Poudel OR, Poudel-Tandukar K, Yoshida K.
Early Child Dev Care. 2009; Doi: 10.1080/03004430802525021
Can National Medical Association Journals Make Greater Contributions to Global Health? An international survey and comparison.
Hamamoto M, JImba M, Halstead DD, Wyshak G, Reich MR. Japan Medical Association Journal. 2009;.52(4): 243-58.
「第5章 グローバル化する世界と公衆衛生」 『公衆衛生－健康支援と社会保障制度［2］』（第12版）
Primary health care must go beyond WHO.
Jimba M, Yasuoka J, Sakisaka K, Poudel KC. Lancet. 2008; 372: 887.
Working group on challenges in global health and Japan's contribution. Human security approach for global health.
Takemi K, Jimba M, Ishii S, Katsuma Y, Nakamura Y, Lancet. 2008; 372: 13-4.
Domestic violence against women in Nepal.
Poudel-Tandukar K, Poudel KC, Yasuoka J, Eto T, Jimba M. Lancet. 2008; 371:1664.
International nutrition training for local action.
Sakisaka K, Jimba M. Lancet. 2008; 371: 1752.
The relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy and perceived insufficient milk among Japanese mothers.
Otsuka K, Dennis CL, Tatsuoka H, Jimba M. .J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008; 37: 546-55.
School and community health project: Part 1: a community development and health project in Nepal.
Jimba M, Poudel-Tandukar K, Poudel KC. JMAJ. 2008; 51: 225-34.
Malaria education from school to community in Oudomxay province, Lao PDR.
Nonaka D, Kobayashi J, Jimba M, Vilaysouk B, Tsukamoto K, Kano S, Phommasack B, Singhasivanon P, Waikagul J, Tateno S, Takeuchi T. Parasitol Int. 2008; 57: 76-82.
Prenatal iron supplementation in rural Vietnam.
Aikawa R, Jimba M, Nguen KC, Binns CW. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008; 62: 946-52.
School and Community Health Project: Part 1: A community development and health project in Nepal.
Masamine J, Poudel-Tandukar K, Poudel KC.Japan Medical Association Journal. Vol.51, No.4, 2008, pp.225-34.
Beyond deworming: the promotion of school-health-based interventions by Japan.
Kobayashi J, Jimba M, Okabayashi H, Singhasivanon P, Waikagul J. Trends Parasitol. 2007; 23: 25-9.
Reaching hard-to-reach migrants by letters: an HIV/AIDS awareness programme in Nepal.
Poudel KC, Jimba M, Poudel-Tandukar K, Wakai S. Health Place. 2007; 13: 173-8.
AIDS health beliefs and intention for sexual abstinence among male adolescent students in Kathmandu, Nepal: a test of perceived severity and susceptibility.
Iriyama S, Nakahara S, Jimba M, Ichikawa M, Wakai S. Public Health. 2007; 121: 64-72.
The influence of economic factors on the location of birth among Palestinian women in Bethlehem during the second Palestinian uprising.
Fujiya R, Jimba M, Giacaman R, Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Wakai S. Trop Doct. 2007; 37: 13-7.
Compensation for avian influenza cleanup.
Kanamori S, Jimba M. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007; 13: 341-2.
Hard-to-reach populations in Japan.
Nomura Y, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007; 38: 325-7.
A challenge for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders in rural Nepal.
Jimba M, Aitken IW, Joshi AB, Ohashi T, Poudyal AK, Wakai S. Trop Doct. 2007; 37: 106-7.
Conflict induced internal displacement in Nepal.
Singh S, Sharma SP, Mills E, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Med Confl Surviv. 2007; 23: 103-10.
HIV superinfection: another reason to avoid serosorting practice.
Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. Lancet. 2007; 370: 23.
Risk perception, road behavior and pedestrian injury among adolescent students in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Poudel-Tandukar K, Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Inj Prev. 2007; 13: 258-63.
Perceptions towards preventive behaviours against HIV transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Poudel KC, Nakahara S, Poudel-Tandukar K, Jimba M. Public Health. 2007; 121: 958-61.
Targeting newly enrolled low-age school children for the control of the intestinal helminth infection in rural Nepal.
Poudyal AK, Jimba M, Silwal RC, Murakami I, Sherchand JB, Wakai S. Trop Doct. 2006; 36: 16-9.
Keys to success for a school-based malaria control program in primary schools in Thailand.
Okabayashi H, Thongthien P, Singhasvanon P, Waikagul J, Looareesuwan S, Jimba M, Kano S, Kojima S, Takeuchi T, Kobayashi J, Tateno S. Parasitol Int. 2006; 55: 121-6.
Availability of childcare support and nutritional status of children of non-working and working mothers in urban Nepal.
Nakahara S, Poudel KC, Lopchan M, Ichikawa M, Poudel-Tandukar K, Jimba M, Wakai S. Am J Hum Biol. 2006; 18: 169-81.
Nutritional status and associated factors in children aged 0-23 months in Granada, Nicaragua.
Sakisaka K, Wakai S, Kuroiwa C, Cuadra Flores L, Kai I, Mercedes Aragon M, Hanada K. Public Health. 2006; 120: 400-11.
Cross-cultural use of the predetermined scale cutoff points in refugee mental health research.
Ichikawa M, Nakahara S, Wakai S. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006; 41: 248-50.
Use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in an emergency situation after the flood disaster in Mozambique.
Hashizume M, Kondo H, Murakami T, Kodama M, Nakahara S, Lucas ME, Wakai S. Public Health. 2006; 120: 444-7.
Effect of post-migration detention on mental health among Afghan asylum seekers in Japan.
Ichikawa M, Nakahara S, Wakai S. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006; 40: 341-6.
New professionalism in the 21st century.
Jimba M. Lancet. 2006; 367: 648-9.
Oral health status of vulnerable groups in a village of the Central Highlands, southern Vietnam.
Uetani M, Jimba M, Kaku T, Ota K, Wakai S. Int J Dent Hyg. 2006; 4: 72-6.
Aid for Africa: listen to women leaders.
Jimba M, Sakisaka K, Hanada K. Lancet. 2006; 367: 1729.
Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?
Aikawa R, Jimba M, Nguen KC, Zhao Y, Binns CW, Lee MK. BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 144.
Relationship between mechanisms and activities at the time of pedestrian injury and activity limitation among school adolescents in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Poudel-Tandukar K, Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Poudel KC, Wakai S. Accid Anal Prev. 2006; 38: 1058-63.
Unintentional injuries among school adolescents in Kathmandu, Nepal: a descriptive study.
Poudel-Tandukar K, Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Poudel KC, Joshi AB, Wakai S. Public Health. 2006; 120: 641-9.
Improving immunization services under the armed conflict in rural Nepal.
Silwal RC, Jimba M, Poudyal AK, Poudel KC, Wakai S.Public Health. 2006; 120: 805-8.
Emerging co-infection of HIV and hepatitis B virus in far western Nepal.
Poudel KC, Jimba M, Okumura J, Wakai S. Trop Doct. 2006; 36: 186-7.
AIDS and human rights research.
Poudel KC, Jimba M, Wakai S. Trop Doct. 2006; 36: 191-2.
Effects of a long-term volunteer surgical program in a developing country: the case in Vietnam from 1993 to 2003.
Uetani M, Jimba M, Niimi T, Natsume N, Katsuki T, Xuan le TT, Wakai S. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006; 43: 616-9.
Magazine information on safety belt use for pregnant women and young children.
Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Wakai S. Accid Anal Prev. 2007; 39: 356-63.
Assessment of IDD problem by estimation of urinary iodine among school children.
Joshi AB, Banjara MR, Bhatta LR, Rikimaru T, Jimba M. Nepal Med Coll J. 2006; 8: 111-4.
HIV/AIDS vulnerability of Nepali migrants to India: whose concern?
Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Jimba M. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1648.
Jayatilleke A, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1765.
Increase of 'Health and Human Rights' Research Articles in Japan.
Jimba M, Nomura Y, Poudel KC, Fujiya R, Wakai S.Japan Medical Association Journal. 2005; 48(11): 545-9.
School Health Research in Low-Income Countries in East Asia and the Pacific.
Jimba M, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Wakai S. Japan Medical Association Journal. 2005; 48(4): 168-74.